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Pleomorphic Compendium








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Master Glossary

— P —


[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X, Y, Z]

[Pacific Oaks College]  [palatal]  [palatal expander appliance]  [pancreatitis]  [Pansy]  [parietal lobes]  [patent on silver based filling materials]  [Peace]  [Peltier Water]  [pelvis]  [penicillin]  [Peppermint]  [periodontal disease]  [peristaltic]  [peritoneum]  [peritoneal implant]  [Pesticide Facts]  [pesticide]  [Petite Fleur Essences]  [Pharmaceutical]  [pharynx]  [phenols]  [Philanthropy News Network Online]  [phytonutrients]  [pink eye]  [Pituitary]  [Planning in Organizations]  [Pleo Alb]  [Pleo Chrys]  [Pleo Muc]  [Pleo Reb]  [Pleo Rec]  [Pleo San Myc]  [Pleo San Staph]  [Pleo San Strep]  [Pleo San Trich]  [Pleo Ut]  [Pleo Ut “S”]  [Pleomorphic SANUM]  [Pleomorphism]  [pleural effusion]  [pleurodesis]  [Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)]  [Porphyria]  [posterior horn of the spinal cord]  [post-polio syndrome]  [Potassium]  [prednisone]  [ProAlgen]  [Professional Associations]  [Progesterone]  [Proposal Guides]  [Proposal Writing]  [Proprioception]  [Prostaglandin]  [Protease]  [Pseudomonas]  [psoas major muscle]  [Psycho-Kinesiology]  [psychoneuroimmunology (PNI)]  [psychotherapy]  [pterygoid]  [Pulsatilla Compositum]  [pulse oximeter]  [pulsing]  [Pure Encapsulations]  [Pyelonephritis]

Pacific Oaks College: located on campuses in Pasadena and Oakland, California, as well as online, is a unique educational institution offering upper division and graduate-level college programs in human development, counseling and teaching credentials.



palatal: having anything to do or relating to the palate or the palate bone. The palate bone is the bony and muscular partition between the oral and nasal cavities. Referred to as the palatum, roof of mouth or maxillary arch.



palatal expander appliance: this invention involves methods for expanding the maxillary arch, and kits including the device.



pancreatitis: an inflammatory condition that occurs when pancreatic digestive enzymes become active within the gland and attack the pancreas itself. Pancreatitis can be acute, appearing suddenly and lasting for a few days, or it can be chronic, developing gradually and persisting over many years. Both acute and chronic pancreatitis are marked by mild to severe abdominal pain, often with nausea, vomiting and fever. And both can lead to serious complications. Heavy alcohol use and gallstones are the primary causes of pancreatitis, but other factors, including certain medical conditions, some drugs and genetic mutations also can lead to the disorder. Sometimes the cause is never found.



Pansy: a delicate looking flower often with a "face." The pansy is quite durable and a "flower for all seasons." is used mostly in three areas, the skin, lungs and urinary system. Pansy may be used in eczema and other skin problems where there is exudate (often called weeping) eczema. As an anti-inflammatory expectorant pansy is used for whooping cough and acute bronchitis where it will soothe and help the body heal itself. For urinary problems pansy will aid in the healing of cystitis and can be used to treat the symptoms of frequent and painful urination. A tea or extract brewed from dried pansy flowers, from the whole flowering plant, or from the root long served in the treatment of skin ailments. It was applied externally as a lotion or taken internally to rid the body of toxic products that were thought to cause skin problems. Like its cousin Viola odorata, it was used as an expectorant, for loosening phlegm. Pansy has also been thought to be a demulcent (a substance that soothes mucous membranes, as of the respiratory tract). There is no scientific evidence regarding the validity of any claims made for pansy's healing properties.



parietal lobes: located above the occipital lobes and behind the central sulcus (fissure) and frontal lobes, this area of the brain controls cognition, information processing, pain and touch sensation, spatial orientation, speech, and  visual perception.



patent on silver based filling materials: the American Dental Association has obtained an exclusive license for a National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) patent on silver-based filling materials. The patent resulted from developmental work at NIST supported by the National Institute of Dental Research to find an alternative to mercury-containing dental restoratives and a technique to place or consolidate the restorative using normal dental hand tools.



Peace: a type of lily, the scientific name of which is spathiphyllum. Having a peace lily is believed to balance people's bodies and energy fields.



Peltier Water: a proprietary, Electrolytes rich, liquid concentrate which contains essential nutrients vital to human health.



pelvis: the bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known as the caudal end). The pelvis incorporates the socket portion of the hip joint for each leg (in bipeds) or hind leg (in quadrupeds). It forms the lower limb (or hind-limb) girdle of the skeleton.



penicillin: the first -lactam antibiotic, renders the synthesis of sensitive bacterial cell wall impossible and is thus bactericidal. Benzylpenicillin (penicillin G) is used parenterally; phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin V) is not inactivated to the same degree in the stomach and is therefore used as an oral preparation.



Peppermint: a staple of the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, it is used in the manufacture of cough syrups, pastilles, ointments, digestives, vapor rubs, toothpastes, mouthwashes, soaps, shampoos and scents. It is also included as an important flavoring in liqueurs. Some of Peppermint's chemical constituents include a volatile oil (containing menthol), rutin, tannin, alpha- and beta-carotene, acids, luteolin, linalool, betaine, coumarin, calcium, choline, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, selenium, zinc, B-vitamins and vitamin E. Peppermint promotes good digestion and improves the appetite. Its foremost use as a medicine (in both home remedies and pharmaceutical preparations) is applied to relieve indigestion and the intestinal gas caused by certain foods; hence, its use in after-dinner mints and liqueurs. It relaxes the stomach muscles and promotes burping. Some studies have shown that Peppermint lessens the amount of time food spends in the stomach by stimulating the gastric lining, and because Peppermint increases stomach acidity and stimulates the flow of bile, it helps to digest food before passing into the intestines and colon. This could make it especially useful in treating Crohn's disease. Peppermint slightly anesthetizes the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract, easing the discomforts of indigestion, including heartburn, hiccups, flatulence and stomachache. Peppermint calms a queasy stomach and is good for nausea and vomiting. It is said to be especially calming for the lower bowel and has been helpful in relieving diarrhea and irritable bowel syndrome. It is also an antispasmodic. Peppermint is helpful in alleviating cramps, including menstrual cramps, and stomach pain, and it eases "griping" (sharp pains and grumbling in the bowel) caused by eating unripe fruit or irritating foods. In England, gastroenterologists spray diluted Peppermint oil directly on the instrument used for colonoscopy to prevent spasms.



periodontal disease: a disease of the mouth that begins when the bacteria in plaque (the sticky, colorless film that constantly forms on your teeth) causes the gums to become inflamed.  In the mildest form of the disease, gingivitis, the gums redden, swell and bleed easily. There is usually little or no discomfort. Gingivitis is often caused by inadequate oral hygiene. Gingivitis is reversible with professional treatment and good oral home care. Untreated gingivitis can advance to periodontitis. With time, plaque can spread and grow below the gum line. Toxins produced by the bacteria in plaque irritate the gums. The toxins stimulate a chronic inflammatory response in which the body in essence turns on itself, and the tissues and bone that support the teeth are broken down and destroyed. Gums separate from the teeth, forming pockets (spaces between the teeth and gums) that become infected. As the disease progresses, the pockets deepen and more gum tissue and bone are destroyed. Often, this destructive process has very mild symptoms. Eventually, teeth can become loose and may have to be removed.



peristaltic: a distinctive pattern of smooth muscle contractions that propels foodstuffs distally through the esophagus and intestines. It was first described as a type of motility in which there is contraction above and relaxation below a segment being stimulated. Peristalsis is not affected to any degree by vagotomy or sympathetectomy, indicating its mediation by the intestine's local, intrinsic nervous system.



peritoneum: the serous membrane that lines the walls of the abdominal cavity and folds inward to enclose the viscera.



peritoneal implant: present in stage III ovarian cancer. The peritoneal cavity is the space within the abdomen that contains the intestines, the stomach, and the liver; it is a common site of metastatic spread for many malignancies. For example, approximately 71%, 17%, and 10% of patients with ovarian, gastric, and colorectal cancer, respectively, have peritoneal metastases at the time of initial presentation. Peritoneal metastases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. A review of several studies involving patients with a variety of underlying primary tumors showed the median survival after a diagnosis of malignant ascites was 1–8 months. The median survival of patients with peritoneal metastases from colorectal cancer is 9 months.



Pesticide Facts: information about pesticides compiled by RATE (Real Alternatives to Toxins in the Environment). They list the health risks that pesticides pose to children and adults.



pesticide: any agent used to kill or control any pest. Pests can be insects, rodents or birds, unwanted plants (weeds), fungi, or microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Though often misunderstood to refer only to insecticides, the term pesticide also applies to herbicides (an agent used to kill or control unwanted herbs), fungicides (an agent used to kill or control unwanted fungi), microbiocides, rodenticides and various other substances used to control pests. Under United States law, a pesticide is also any substance or mixture of substances intended for use as a insect or plant growth regulator, insect mating disruptor or egg sterilant, defoliant, or desiccant. Many household products are pesticides, such as cockroach sprays and baits, rat poisons, pet flea collars, products that kill mold and mildew, and kitchen disinfectants.



Petite Fleur Essencesharvested flowers that are steam - distilled and hand processed with purely organically grown flowers and herbs specially formulated to catalyze potentials and enrich the mind, body, and soul. Used for aromatherapy. Aromatherapyis the oldest art and science of holistic health, utilizing scent from pure essential oils to balance the mind, body, and emotions. Aromas directly affect brain chemistry and moods. Scents are used for depression, anxiety, stress, insomnia, chronic fatigue, concentration, memory, and romance.



Pharmaceutical: a drug that alters the structure and function of the affected organ



pharynx: a fibro muscular tube which extends from the base of the skull to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage (at which point it becomes the esophagus). Portions of the pharynx lie posterior to the nasal cavity (nasal pharynx), oral cavity (oral pharynx) and larynx (laryngeal pharynx).



phenolsa colorless, crystalline solid that melts at about 41 C;, boils at 182 C;, and is soluble in ethanol and ether and somewhat soluble in water. An aromatic alcohol, it exhibits weak acidic properties and is corrosive and poisonous. Phenol is sometimes called carbolic acid, especially when in water solution. It reacts with strong bases to form salts called phenolates. Phenol is important in industry in the production of certain artificial resins, e.g., Bakelite, and in the synthesis of many drugs, dyes, weed killers, insecticides, and explosives (e.g., picric acid). It is the simplest member of a class of hydroxy benzene derivatives, all of which contain a hydroxyl group attached to a benzene ring; these compounds may be thought of as derivatives of phenol and generically are called phenols.



Philanthropy News Network Online: delivers news, information, and resources to all segments of the nonprofit world in order to help them better achieve their goals. PNNOnline's constituents work in or are involved in other ways with the United States nonprofit sector, which is comprised of organizations that make up 6% of all organizations in our country and spend $500 billion to carry out their programs. No other online resource matches the depth and breadth of PNNOnline. Each month, approximately 75,000 unique users visit the site to find out what is happening in the philanthropic world. New content is featured each day, along with a well-regarded and highly active jobs postings service. In addition to reporting news, PNNOnline has a reputation for delivering original content, whether from prominent experts in the nonprofit field, or from its own staff. "Challenges of the New Century" has explored the issues facing nonprofits in its rapidly changing industry - from venture philanthropy to telecommuting to the ethics of technology. "Charity in the UK" is a monthly series written by prominent British journalist Brian O'Hagan outlining the differences and similarities between our two systems. The column is picked up and reprinted by numerous news agencies and foundations in the UK that report on the NGO world. PNNOnline is used as an ongoing consultant to major news agencies when they report on the nonprofit sector, especially in the area of fundraising. ABC News, CNN, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Chicago Tribune, and various Knight Ridder papers, frequently call on PNNOnline staff for advice, direction, and comments regarding nonprofit issues.



phytonutrients: in broad terms, they are said to be any chemical or nutrient derived from a plant source. However, in common usage, they have a more limited definition. They are usually used to refer to compounds found in plants that are not required for normal functioning of the body but that nonetheless have a beneficial effect on health or an active role in the amelioration of disease. Thus, they differ from what are traditionally termed nutrients in that they are not a necessity for normal metabolism, and their absence will not result in a deficiency disease -- at least not on the timescale normally attributed to such phenomena. A minority claim that many of the diseases afflicting the people of industrialized nations are the result of those people's lack of phytonutrients in their diet. What is beyond dispute is that phytonutrients have many and various salubrious functions in the body. For example, they may promote the function of the immune system, act directly against bacteria and viruses, reduce inflammation, and be associated with the treatment and/or prevention of cancer, cardiovascular disease and any other malady affecting the health or well-being of an individual.



pink eyean inflammation or infection of the transparent membrane (conjunctiva) that lines your eyelid and part of your eyeball. The cause of pink eye is commonly a bacterial or viral infection, an allergic reaction or — in newborns — an incompletely opened tear duct. Pink eye may make you feel as if you've got something in one or both of your eyes that you just can't remove. When you wake up in the morning, your eyes may seem to be pasted shut from the discharge coming from your eyes. The whites of your eyes may begin to have a pink discoloration, and you may not see as clearly as you did before. Inflammation causes small blood vessels in the conjunctiva to become more prominent, resulting in a pink or red cast to the whites of your eyes. Pink eye and red eye are terms commonly used to refer to all types of conjunctivitis. Though the inflammation of pink eye makes it an irritating condition, it rarely affects your sight. If you suspect pink eye, you can take steps to ease your discomfort. But because pink eye can be contagious, it should be diagnosed and treated early. This is especially important for preschool-age children, who commonly develop both viral and bacterial conjunctivitis.



Pituitary: a gland that is sometimes called the "master" gland of the endocrine system, because it controls the functions of the other endocrine glands. The pituitary gland is no larger than a pea, and is located at the base of the brain. The gland is attached to the hypothalumus (a part of the brain that affects the pituitary gland) by nerve fibers. The pituitary gland itself consists of three sections: the anterior lobe, the intermediate lobe, the posterior lobe.



Planning in Organizations: traditionally considered to be one of the four major functions of management, along with organizing, leading and coordinating/controlling. Simply put, planning is identifying where you want to go, why you want to go there, how you will get there, what you need in order to get there and how you will know if you're there or not. The following are many of the types of plans generated in a business organizations.



Pleo Alb: a remedy that is used when there is a vaginitis or urethritis. It is also used for gallbladder problems and allergies. Pleo Alb is also used for fungal development found on the skin, mouth, and intestinal tract. This pleomorphic remedy is considered strong and is usually used after Pleo Fort, Pleo Pef, or Pleo E.



Pleo Chrys: a remedy that utilizes human placenta hydrolysate for stimulation of the metabolism it is for functional disturbances of the male gonads treates sexual edema, sexual asthenia, and serves to treat sexual problems by way of achieving cellular regeneration.



Pleo Muc: eye drops that consist of the Enderlein based SANUM remedy Mucokehl, called Pleo Muc in the U.S., and isotonic sodium chloride, elsewhere. Mucokehl is generally used as a body-wide balancing remedy, which also supports circulation. It benefits the circulation by reducing congestion and promoting flow. This will facilitate the blood qi to move more freely and thus, provide all of the many benefits of increased blood and blood qi to the body. This increased circulation would then benefit the liver in a similar manner, by promoting blood qi and flow to this ruling organ.



Pleo Reb: a glandular remedy that is available to support gut lymphoid tissue, which is a key component to the immune system. This remedy, Pleo Reb, consists of Peyer Patches extract. The Peyer patches are the glandular support gut lymphoid tissue.



Pleo Rec: a remedy known in Germany under the name Recarcin 6X. It is a Homeopathic remedy by SANUM for the temporary relief of fever and minor inflammation. To be used according to standard homeopathic indications. German health practitioners report that Pleo™ Rec may be useful as supportive therapy to help alleviate the symptomatic effects of inflammations of the mucus membranes of the respiratory system such as sinusitis, bronchitis, asthma inflammations of the gastrointestinal tract such as gastritis, ulcers, colitis inflammations of the serous membranes such as arthritis, bursitis glandular dysfuction such as thyroid, goiter, liver, pancreas, ovaries, disamenorrhea, amenorrhea, and  Lyme Disease.  European reports also indicate that Pleo™ Rec has been sucessfully used as supportive therapy for Multiple Sclerosis.



Pleo San Myc: a Sanum remedy for allergy, nettle rash, bronchial asthma, pleuritis, arthritis, disturbance in bone growth, puberty acne, eczema with fissures, psoriasis, inflammation in cornea, conjunctivitis, hordeolum, enteritis, cardial spasm, gastric and duodenal ulcer.



Pleo San Staph: a Sanum remedy for hair follicle inflammation, eyelid inflammation, chronic stye, acne, pneumonia and sinusitis, tonsillitis, urogenital infection of staph, myocarditis, meningitis, osteomylitis, and mastoiditis.



Pleo San Strep: a Sanum remedy for hair loss, eczema, cardial cramp, emphysema, pericarditis and myocarditis, tonsillitis, primary chronic polyarthritis, mammary gland inflammation after childbirth, otitis midia, osteomylitis, and migraines.



Pleo San Trich: a Sanum remedy for mycosis in skin, hair and nails, and for tinea lacteal.



Pleo Ut: a Sanum remedy for allergies, colitis syndrome, liver/gallbladder, modulation of the immune system, blood cleansing, asthma, eczema, gastritis, and viral infections.



Pleo Ut ”S”: a Sanum remedy that stimulates the immune system, acts directly on tubercular and paratubercular diseases, and can be taken for lung diseases, tuberculosis, and tumors.



Pleomorphic SANUM: a company that offers a comprehensive natural, holistic healing system used successfully, worldwide, for over 50 years. It utilizes the complete natural system of homeopathic and isopathic medicines. In North America, the FDA-sanctioned remedies that make up SANUM Therapy are available exclusively from Pleomorphic SANUM.



Pleomorphism: the existence of irregular and variant forms of the same species or strain of microorganisms. This is a well-known phenomenon in certain bacteria, yeasts, and other microbes. According to one textbook, "Many fungi, particularly those that cause disease in humans, are dimorphic, that is, they have two forms"



pleural effusion: the lungs are covered by a membrane or lining, called the pleura, which has an inner layer and an outer layer. The inner layer covers the lungs. The outer layer lines the rib cage and diaphragm, which is a sheet of muscle, which separates the chest from the abdomen.  The pleura produces a fluid, which acts as a lubricant that helps you to breathe easily, allowing the lungs to move in and out smoothly. Sometimes too much of this fluid can build up between the two layers of the pleura: this is called a pleural effusion.



pleurodesis: the artificial obliteration of the pleural space (the two membranes that surround the lungs). It is done to prevent recurrence of pneumothorax or pleural effusion. It can be done chemically or surgically. Chemicals such as talc, bleomycin or tetracycline or povidone iodine can be introduced into the pleural space through a chest drain. The instilled chemicals cause irritation between the parietal and the visceral layers of the pleura, which closes off the space between them and prevents further fluid from accumulating. Chemical pleurodesis is a painful procedure, so patients are usually premedicated with a sedative. A local anesthetic is also instilled into the pleural space.



Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): chemical compounds that consist of fused aromatic rings and do not contain heteroatoms or carry substituents [1]. These compounds can be point source pollutants (e.g. oil spill) or non-point source (e.g. atmospheric deposition) and are one of the most widespread organic pollutants. Some of them are known or suspected carcinogens, and are linked to other health problems. They are primarily formed by incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels such as wood, coal, diesel, fat, or tobacco. Tar also contains PAHs. Since human civilization relies so heavily on combustion, PAHs are inevitably linked to our energy production. In this sense, PAH can be thought of as marker molecules as their abundance can be directly proportional to combustion processes in the region and therefore directly related to air quality. Different types of combustion yield different distributions of PAHs in both relative amounts of individual PAHs and in which isomers are produced. Thus, those produced from coal burning are different than those produced by motor-fuel combustion, which differ from those produced by forest fires. Some PAHs occur within crude oil, arising from chemical conversion of natural product molecules, such as steroids, to aromatic hydrocarbons.



Porphyria: a group of different disorders caused by abnormalities in the chemical steps leading to the production of heme, a substance that is important in the body. The largest amounts of heme are in the blood and bone marrow, where it carries oxygen. Heme is also found in the liver and other tissues. Multiple enzymes are needed for the body to produce heme. If any one of the enzymes is abnormal, the process cannot continue and the intermediate products, porphyrin or its precursors, may build up and be excreted in the urine and stool. The porphyria disorders can be grouped by symptoms—whether they affect the skin or the nervous system. The cutaneous porphyrias affect the skin. People with cutaneous porphyria develop blisters, itching, and swelling of their skin when it is exposed to sunlight. The acute porphyrias affect the nervous system. Symptoms of acute porphyria include pain in the chest, abdomen, limbs, or back; muscle numbness, tingling, paralysis, or cramping; vomiting; constipation; and personality changes or mental disorders. These symptoms appear intermittently. The porphyrias are inherited conditions, and the genes for all enzymes in the heme pathway have been identified. Some forms of porphyria result from inheriting an abnormal gene from one parent (autosomal dominant). Other forms are from inheriting an abnormal gene from each parent (autosomal recessive). The risk that individuals in an affected family will have the disease or transmit it to their children is quite different depending on the type. Attacks of porphyria can develop over hours or days and last for days or weeks. Porphyria can be triggered by drugs (barbiturates, tranquilizers, birth control pills, sedatives), chemicals, fasting, smoking, drinking alcohol, infections, emotional and physical stress, menstrual hormones, and exposure to the sun. Porphyria is diagnosed through blood, urine, and stool tests. Diagnosis may be difficult because the range of symptoms is common to many disorders and interpretation of the tests may be complex. Each form of porphyria is treated differently. Treatment may involve treating with heme, giving medicines to relieve the symptoms, or drawing blood. People who have severe attacks may need to be hospitalized.



posterior horn of the spinal cord: the spinal cord is dorsal (more towards the back) to the posterior horn. It receives several types of sensory information from the body, including light touch, proprioception, and vibration. This information is sent from receptors of the skin, bones, and joints through sensory neurons whose cell bodies lie in the dorsal root ganglion.



post-polio syndrome: some people who had polio at a young age may experience certain late effects of the disease many years later, known as a condition called post-polio syndrome (PPS). The cause of post-polio syndrome is unknown, but research is beginning to yield a better understanding of this complex condition. According to the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), post-polio syndrome affects about 25 percent to 50 percent of polio survivors, perhaps even more depending on how post-polio syndrome is defined.



Potassium: an electrolyte that helps nerves and muscles communicate. It also helps move nutrients into cells and waste products out of cells. Potassium levels in the body are mainly controlled by the hormone aldosterone.



prednisone: a glucocorticoid. Glucocorticoids are adrenocortical steroids, both naturally occurring and synthetic, which are readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. Prednisolone is a white to practically white, odorless, crystalline powder. It is very slightly soluble in water; soluble in methanol and in dioxane; sparingly soluble in acetone and in alcohol; slightly soluble in chloroform.



ProAlgen: a remedy made from high-binding alginate (which is a gell found in the cell wall of algae) and Milk Thistle, yeilding 80% silymarin for optimal elimination of environmental toxins.



Professional Associationsa list of professional medical groups that practice alternative medicine. This list is put together by Health World Online.



Progesterone: one of the hormones in our bodies that stimulates and regulates various functions. Progesterone plays a role in maintaining pregnancy. The hormone is produced in the ovaries, the placenta (when a woman gets pregnant) and the adrenal glands. It helps prepare your body for conception and pregnancy and regulates the monthly menstrual cycle. It also plays a role in sexual desire.



Proposal Guides: a helpful explanation on how to write a proposal. This website created by the Univeristy of Idaho offers a list of sites with links that offer proposal guide tutorials and other helpful tools for proposal writing.



Proposal Writing: a site that lists websites that offers excellent guidelines for grant proposal writing. Some include advice on letters of inquiry and sample proposals as well. Put together by the Grants Information Collection: A Cooperating Collection of the Foundation Center Library Network.



Proprioception: the sense that indicates whether the body is moving with required effort, as well as where the various parts of the body are located in relation to each other. It is the process by which the body can vary muscle contraction in immediate response to incoming information regarding external forces, by utilizing stretch receptors in the muscles to keep track of the joint position in the body.



Prostaglandin: a member of the lipid class of biochemicals known for their potent physiological properties. They belong to a subclass of lipids known as the eicosanoids (which are signaling molecules derived from omega-3 or omega-6 fats) because of their structural similarities to the C-20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. In general, prostaglandins act in a manner similar to that of hormones, by stimulating target cells into action. However, they differ from hormones in that they act locally, near their site of synthesis, and they are metabolized very rapidly.



Protease: an enzyme responsible for digesting proteins in your food, which is probably one of the most difficult substances to metabolize. Because of this, protease is considered to be one of the most important enzymes that we have. If the digestive process is incomplete, undigested protein can wind up in your circulatory system, as well as in other parts of your body.



Pseudomonas: a genus of gamma proteobacteria, belonging to the larger family of pseudomonads. Most Pseudomonas are naturally resistant to penicillin and the majority of related beta-lactam antibiotics, but a number are sensitive to piperacillin, imipenem, tobramycin, or ciprofloxacin. This ability to thrive in harsh conditions is a result of their hardy cell wall that contains porins. Their resistance to most antibiotics is attributed to efflux pumps called ABC transporters, which pump out some antibiotics before they are able to act. Being Gram-negative bacteria, most Pseudomonas spp. are naturally resistant to penicillin and the majority of related beta-lactam antibiotics, but a number are sensitive to piperacillin, imipenem, tobramycin, or ciprofloxacin. This ability to thrive in harsh conditions is a result of their hardy cell wall that contains porins. Their resistance to most antibiotics is attributed to efflux pumps called ABC transporters, which pump out some antibiotics before they are able to act.



psoas major muscle: a muscle that connects the pelvis the to the leg. It is attaches from the lower lumbar to the upper thigh and controls the rotation and flex of the hip.



Psycho-Kinesiology: uses both muscle testing and cognitive therapeutic techniques. With the introduction of cognitive techniques a practitioner finds what needs to be done. With the muscle testing he or she finds what the unconscious is doing about it. Hence, Psycho kinesiology is a holistic process. It assumes that the individual is a complete system operating at peak efficiency for its present experiences. It works with the whole system correcting both conscious and unconscious operations.



psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): a relatively recent branch of science that enforces beliefs that physicians have held for many centuries, perhaps well before the times of the ancient Greeks. The premise is that a patient's mental state influences diseases and healing. Specifically, PNI studies the connection between the brain and the immune system.



psychotherapy: the treatment of mental or emotional disorders and adjustment problems through the use of psychological techniques rather than through physical or biological means. Psychoanalysis, the first modern form of psychotherapy, was called the "talking cure," and the many varieties of therapy practiced today are still characterized by their common dependence on a verbal exchange between the counselor or therapist and the person seeking help. The therapeutic interaction is characterized by mutual trust, with the goal of helping individuals change destructive or unhealthy behaviors, thoughts, and emotions.



pterygoid: relating to, or located in the region of the sphenoid bone: a pterygoid muscle.



Pulsatilla Compositum: a Heel remedy for stimulation of the non-specific defense mechanism in inflammation, infection, chronic illness and chronic mucosal discharge.



pulse oximeter: a medical device that indirectly measures the amount of oxygen in a patient's blood and changes in blood volume in the skin, a photoplethysmograph. It is often attached to a medical monitor so staff can see a patient's oxygenation at all times. Most monitors also display the heart rate.



pulsing: a therapy technique using transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation. This specific therapy is for the treatment and resolution of pain related to neurological and myofacial conditions. It delivers treatment by delivering a mild electronic impulse through the nerves that control the masticatory and facial muscles. The rhythmic pulsing relaxes the muscles and therefore allows the doctor to determine the correct relation of the mandible to the cranium. It also relieves pain and trismus of the muscles of the face caused by spasms and tension. In addition, it propels the mandible through space to a position, which is most compatible with a relaxed musculature.



Pure Encapsulations: a Company founded to create the highest quality hypoallergenic supplements. Since 1991, they have set the standards for providing the highest quality nutritional products available, and have established an unprecedented Quality Control program. Today, their supplements are the choice of over 36,000 health professionals in the U.S. and Europe.



Pyelonephritis: a kidney infection, usually from bacteria that have spread from the bladder.