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Master Glossary

— E —


[A] [B] [C] [D] [E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X, Y, Z]

[E]  [Echinacea]  [Ecobiotics]  [Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West]  [Educational Kinesiology]  [effusions]
[eFundingSolutions]  [E.I. Syndrome]  [electroacupuncture]  [electrogalvanism (dental)]  [EMG scan]
[Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Revised 2nd Edition]  [Enderlein]  [Endocrine system]  [Endodontic]
[endometriosis]  [Endorphins]  [energy medicine]  [Engystol]  [enterovirus]  [Environmental Health Center -
]  [Environmental Health Network of California]  [Environmental Web Directory]  [Environmental Working
]  [EPA mercury site]  [EPA site pollution map]  [EPA/DHA Essentials]  [epinephrine]  [Epsom Salt]
[essential oils]  [Estazolam]  [estrogen]  [ether]  [Eustachian tube]  [Evaluation Activities in Organizations]
[Evening Primrose Oil]  [Executive Service Corps Affiliate Network]  [Extacee]  [extrafusal fibers]

E: Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that exists in eight different forms. Each form has its own biological activity, which is the measure of potency or functional use in the body. Alpha-tocopherol (α-tocopherol) is the name of the most active form of vitamin E in humans. It is also a powerful biological antioxidant. Antioxidants such as vitamin E act to protect your cells against the effects of free radicals, which are potentially damaging by-products of energy metabolism. Free radicals can damage cells and may contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and cancer. Studies are underway to determine whether vitamin E, through its ability to limit production of free radicals, might help prevent or delay the development of those chronic diseases. Vitamin E has also been shown to play a role in immune function, in DNA repair, and other metabolic processes. Vegetable oils, nuts, green leafy vegetables, and fortified cereals are common food sources of vitamin E.



Echinacea: the best known and researched herb for stimulating the immune system. Thousands of Europeans and Americans use echinacea preparations against colds and flu, minor infections, and a host of other major and minor ailments. This native American herb has an impressive record of laboratory and clinical research. Thousands of doctors currently use echinacea for treating infectious diseases.



Ecobiotics: formerly Higher Octave Healing but now known as EcoBiotics. They present a profoundly new view of human health called EcoBiotics. This views the human body as a dynamic ecological system - a complex web of living relationships whose interplay determines the balance between health and illness. Some of these ecological relationships are well known including the familiar "friendly" bacteria that live symbiotically in our intestines and elsewhere around the body. Awareness of other, more ubtle relationships, is slowly entering the consciousness of mainstream biology.



Edible and Medicinal Plants of the West: this book invites anyone interested in plants, personal well-being, and a healthy environment to discover the healing powers of the herbal world. Full-color photographs face detailed descriptions of 250 plant species in the western United States and Canada, covering field identification, habitat and range, edibility, medicinal uses, and more.



Educational Kinesiology: kinesiology is “the study of movement.” Educational Kinesiology (or Edu-K) is the study and application of natural movement experiences to facilitate learning. It focuses on the performance of specific physical activities that activate the brain for optimal storage and retrieval of information. Edu-K is a process for re-educating the mind/body system for accomplishing any skill or function with greater ease and efficiency. Edu-K includes both self-help and facilitated processes.



effusions: the escape of fluid from the blood vessels or lymphatics into the tissues or a cavity.



eFundingSolutions: a team dedicated to helping schools find the money they need. They give personalized service.



The E.I. Syndrome: An Rx for Environmental Illness: a guide for people who have simple pollen, dust, mold, food and /or chemical sensitivities.



electroacupuncture (E.A.V.): developed 50 years ago by the German doctor Reinhard Voll, EAV is based on the classic Chinese method of acupuncture and its theory of the human body's energy force and functional cycles. There is an energetic, dynamic balance between human organs and the acupuncture points. The practitioner measures changes in electrical conductivity at the acupuncture points on the skin of the hands and feet, using a point electrode. This examination makes it possible to measure functional connections. The energetic condition of the human body can be affected by harmful environmental influences such as drugs, toxins, insecticides, pesticides, viruses, bacteria, dental material, and disrupted fields. These factors can be read by EAV without the need for invasive surgery or laboratory tests. EAV is particularly effective for finding the cause of chronic pain and countering the blocking effect of hot spots. The remote actions of hot spots follow Chinese acupuncture meridians. In this way, pain caused by a rheumatic condition, for example, follows the diseased kidney and bladder meridian. An infected tooth can have a harmful effect on associated organ systems leading to arthritis, headaches or back pain. In the past, Chinese doctors discovered meridians by examining the way in which pain spread. Although the human body is designed to heal itself and will do everything that is necessary for the preservation of life, self-healing is often prevented by diseases and disorders.



electrogalvanism (dental): galvanic currents, or electrogalvanism exists when there are two or more different metals in the salt water or elecrolyte environment that exists in your mouth due to the continued production of saliva. The electrical energy coming from your crowns and fillings, which can be measured, can be considerable and can have significant negative effects on your body, particularly the nervous system and brain function.



EMG scan: involves testing the electrical activity of muscles. In some medical conditions the electrical activity of the muscles or nerves is not normal. Finding and describing these electrical properties in the muscle or nerve may help your doctor diagnose your condition. EMG may aid with the diagnosis of nerve compression or injury (such as carpal tunnel syndrome), nerve root injury (such as sciatica), and with other problems of the muscles or nerves. Less common medical conditions include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, and muscular dystrophy.



Encyclopedia of Natural Medicine, Revised 2nd Edition: this classic naturopathic reference by two naturopathic physicians is still one of the best books on natural medicine for consumers. Comprehensive and easy to use, it discusses some 70 health problems. What truly sets it apart from other similar titles are the scientific articles (82 pages in total) that support the encyclopedia's content.



Enderlein, Gunther: (1872 - 1968) studied in the natural sciences at the university, specializing in zoology. He became curator of the Berlin Zoological Museum. He wrote over 500 scientific papers as a zoologist. Enderlein founded his own microbiological institute in Berlin, where he developed new types of preparations from molds. Enderlein discovered that the blood of all mammals contained a symbiont of plant origin. This organism turned up in various forms, which, among other things, performed vital functions related to blood clotting (thrombocytes). All of life turned out to be a "gigantic symbiosis", for vertebrates could not have arisen if blood had not been able to clot. Healthy life had to be a eusymbiosis; this meant that disease had to represent a disturbed symbiosis. To be sure, the discovery of the "Spermit" did not solve the Riddle of the Ages, but at least the secret of life up to the limits of knowledge was elucidated. Having once penetrated to the basis of life, the microbial life-cycle could quickly be described in all its variety of form. This description is contained in Bacteria Cyclogeny. Here is shown that no unit of life thinks, in the "struggle to survive,” in terms of eliminating other life-forms. On the contrary, one can see each species striving for equilibrium with the other species in its environment. Eating and killing is kept down to the amount necessary for the survival of the species. Anyone needing proof will find it in the darkfield by observing Spermit activity in the blood. As soon as reproduction and upward development of the botanical symbiotic partner known as the "Endobiont" is forced by some influence or another, supernumerary symbiont elements are removed from circulation by copulation processes. In all this, there are many possibilities and side-effects (pseudo-crystal formation) that cannot be gone into here. These adaptive necessities are called diseases, but they are healing processes, attempts to shunt a disturbed symbiosis back to the original healthy track.



Endocrine system: the nervous system sends electrical messages to control and coordinate the body. The endocrine system has a similar job, but uses chemicals to “communicate”. These chemicals are known as hormones. A hormone is a specific messenger molecule synthesized and secreted by a group of specialized cells called an endocrine gland. These glands are ductless, which means that their secretions (hormones) are released directly into the bloodstream and travel to elsewhere in the body to target organs, upon which they act.



Endodontic: the branch of dentistry that specializes in performing root canals.



endometriosis: disease characterized by the presence of tissue which is histologically identical to endometrium (the inner lining of the uterine wall) outside the uterine cavity. It is one of the most complex and least understood diseases in gynecology and, despite many theories, gynecologists still do not have a clear understanding of the cause or of its relationship to infertility. Although endometriosis has been considered a pathological or separate disease entity, it may not be a disease at all. It may actually be the clinical manifestation of a more basic underlying disorder, such as a basic chemical or physiological abnormality that affects the tubal motility or immune system which could be responsible for the initiation or progression of endometriosis in patients with retrograde menstrual flow. By the same token, endometriosis may not be the cause of infertility, but the result of it. Historically, it has been shown that sometimes our understanding of a disease has awaited the technology to explain it. This may very well be the case with endometriosis, especially in regard to its immunological aspects. Further technological developments may be necessary in order for us to fully understand this problem.



Endorphins: neurotransmitters found in the brain that have pain-relieving properties similar to morphine. There are three major types of endorphins: beta endorpins, found primarily in the pituitary gland; and enkephalins and dynorphin, both distributed throughout the nervous system. Endorphins interact with opiate receptor neurons to reduce the intensity of pain: among individuals afflicted with chronic pain disorders, endorphins are often found in high numbers. Many painkilling drugs, such as morphine and codeine, act like endorphins and actually activate opiate receptors. Besides behaving as a pain regulator, endorphins are also thought to be connected to physiological processes including euphoric feelings, appetite modulation, and the release of sex hormones. Prolonged, continuous exercise contributes to an increased production and release of endorphins, resulting in a sense of euphoria that has been popularly labeled “runner’s high.”



energy medicine: the practice of energy medicine is based in a particular paradigm which one must understand in order to see the value of this approach. It is a fact that there is a flow of electricity (that is, a flow of electrons) through and over the surface of all living organisms. Acupuncture is based on this fact. The lines of electron flow around the body are termed "meridians" and it is the strategic insertion of tiny needles (or the application of pressure in the case of acupressure) into points along these meridians which is thought to account for the effects of this technique. These points are charge sinks where electrons flow out of the interior of the body to spread out over the surface. It is believed that illness is caused by disturbed flow of electrons. The various instruments which are used in energy medicine are designed to intercept this disturbed flow and return it to a pattern more consistent with health. The result of treatment with these devices is very dependent on the skill of the doctor applying them. Practitioners of energy medicine disciplines believe strongly that it is the medicine of the future and that it will largely replace drug oriented medicine.



Engystol: a Heel remedy that activates the non-specific defensive mechanism, particularly in the case of influenza and questionable virus diseases.



enterovirus: a group of small viruses that are made of ribonucleic acid (RNA) and protein. This group includes the polioviruses, coxsackieviruses, and echoviruses. In addition to the three different polioviruses, there are 61 non-polio enteroviruses that can cause disease in humans: 23 Coxsackie A viruses, 6 Coxsackie B viruses, 28 echoviruses, and 4 other enteroviruses. Non-polio enteroviruses are second only to the "common cold" viruses, the rhinoviruses, as the most common viral infectious agents in humans. The enteroviruses cause an estimated 10-15 million or more symptomatic infections a year in the United States. All three types of polioviruses have been eliminated from the Western Hemisphere by the widespread use of vaccines. Enteroviruses can be found in the respiratory secretions (e.g., saliva, sputum, or nasal mucus) and stool of an infected person. Other persons may become infected by direct contact with secretions from an infected person or by contact with contaminated surfaces or objects, such as a drinking glass or telephone. Parents, teachers, and child care center workers may also become infected by contamination of the hands with stool from an infected infant or toddler during diaper changes.



Environmental Health Center - Dallas: one of the oldest and most advanced centers in the world addressing health and disease as it relates to the environment. With a staff of more than 70, including physicians, surgeons, scientists, nutritionists, and physical therapists, the center provides full-service medical care with a special emphasis on the impact of environmental factors on the human body. According to Dr. William J. Rea, the surgeon who founded the Clinic in 1974, various exposures may cause sleep disturbance, learning disorders, blood vessel, colon and bladder inflammations as well as a host of other inflammatory problems. Environmental medicine physicians are continually expanding their knowledge through research, which is a staple at the clinic. In the last few years, the Center has hosted research scientists and doctors from 17 countries for extended studies.



Environmental Health Network of California: an advocacy organization for clean air, water, and environment.



Environmental Web Directory: a resource page on a wide variety of environmental subjects.



Environmental Working Group: a team of scientists, engineers, policy experts, lawyers and computer programmers that pore over government data, legal documents, scientific studies and their own laboratory tests to expose threats to human health and the environment, and to find solutions. Their research brings to light unsettling facts that people have a right to know.



EPA mercury site: the US Environmental Protection Agency's mercury site provides a broad range of information: actions by the EPA and others (including international actions), effects on people and the environment, and how to protect you and your family.



EPA site pollution map: the EPA’s EnviroMapper for Envirofacts combines interactive maps and aerial photography to display facility-based information from the Envirofacts Warehouse.



EPA/DHA Essentials: made by Pure Encapsulations, this is an ultra-pure, molecularly distilled fish oil concentrate that has been tested for environmental contaminants (heavy metals, PCBs, dioxins and furans), microbial contaminants, and oxidation and rancidity. It contains well below the strict limits for these criteria as established by the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN), Europea Pharmacoepeia (EP) and U.S. Pharmacoepeia (USP). EPA and DHA from fish oil promote cardiovascular health by supporting healthy triglyceride and lipid metabolism, maintaining healthy blood flow, and supporting healthy platelet function. Fish oil is also important for optimal joint function. It maintains healthy prostaglandin and leukotriene production, which is important for maintaining connective tissue health and comfort. Furthermore, omega-3 fatty acids are important components of neuronal cell membranes and are essential to cognitive function. By supporting vascular health, fish oils promote oxygen and nutrient delivery to the brain. Studies suggest that healthy red blood cell membrane omega-3 fatty acid concentration is associated with emotional well-being. Both epidemiological and double blind placebo- controlled trials indicate that fish oil supports positive mood.



epinephrine: a drug that relaxes the smooth muscles of the bronchi and iris and is a physiologic antagonist of histamine. The drug also produces an increase in blood sugar and glycogenolysis in the liver. Intravenous injection produces an immediate and intensified response. Following intravenous injection epinephrine disappears rapidly from the blood stream. It is used to treat acute hypersensitivity, acute asthmatic attacks, and cardiac arrest.



Epsom Salt: named for the mineral rich waters of Epsom, England, Epsom Salt can be used to ease achy muscles, exfoliate the skin, and absorb odors. It can also be used to reduce swelling or to take the sting out of an insect bite.



essential oils: an essential oil is a liquid that is generally distilled (most frequently by steam or water) from the leaves, stems, flowers, bark, roots, or other elements of a plant. Essential oils, contrary to the use of the word "oil" are not really oily-feeling at all. Most essential oils are clear, but some oils such as patchouli, orange and lemongrass are amber or yellow in color. Essential oils contain the true essence of the plant it was derived from. Essential oils are highly concentrated and a little goes a long way. The chemical composition and aroma of essential oils can provide valuable psychological and physical therapeutic benefits. These benefits are usually achieved through methods including inhalation and application of the diluted oil to the skin.



Estazolam: marketed under the brand names ProSom® and Eurodin®, it is a drug which is a benzodiazepine derivative. It possesses anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, sedative and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. It is commonly prescribed for the short-term treatment of insomnia.



estrogen: a hormone that comprises a group of compounds, including estrone, estradiol and estriol. It is the main sex hormone in women and is essential to the menstrual cycle. Although estrogen exists in men as well as women, it is found in higher amounts in women, especially those capable of reproducing. Estrogen contributes to the development of secondary sex characteristics, which are the defining differences between men and women that don’t relate to the reproductive system. In women, these characteristics include breasts, a widened pelvis, and increased amounts of body fat in the buttock, thigh and hip region. Estrogen also contributes to the fact that women have less facial hair and smoother skin then men. Estrogen is manufactured mostly in the ovaries, by developing egg follicles. In addition, estrogen is produced by the corpus luteum in the ovary, as well as by the placenta. The liver, breasts and adrenal glands may also contribute to estrogen production, although in smaller quantities.



etherused as an anesthetic that causes excellent muscle relaxation with minimal effect on blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration. It is irritating to the respiratory passages and produces nausea.  Today, ether is rarely used. The use of flammable ether waned as nonflammable anesthetic agents such as halothane became available. Additionally, ether had many undesirable side effects, such as postanesthetic nausea and vomiting. Modern anesthetic agents, such as methyl propyl ether (Neothyl) and methoxyflurane (Penthrane) reduce these side effects.



Eustachian tube: a hollow structure of bone and cartilage extending from the middle ear to the rear of the throat, or pharynx. By permitting air to leave or enter the middle ear, the tube equalizes air pressure on either side of the eardrum. The tube can become blocked, as by enlarged adenoids or the mucous secretions of a cold, so that external and internal pressure become imbalanced. Earache and diminution of hearing may result. The tube may also serve as a pathway to the ear for infections of the throat. A common ear disease known as Otitis Media, usually appearing in early childhood, is thought to be related to the Eustachian tube. The tube tends to be shorter and more horizontal among children, factors which facilitate the spread of infections from upper respiratory diseases to the middle ear, as well as the accumulation of fluids in the region.



Evaluation Activities in Organizations: evaluation, in the context of management activities, is carefully collecting information about something in order to make necessary decisions about it. There are a large number and wide variety of evaluations that can occur in businesses, whether for-profit or nonprofit. Evaluation is closely related to performance management (whether about organizations, groups, processes or individuals), which includes identifying measures to indicate results. Evaluation often includes collecting information around these measures to conclude the extent of performance.



Evening Primrose Oil: for centuries, native Americans have used the roots and leaves of Oenothera biennis - an edible plant with bright yellow, lemon-scented flowers - to treat wounds and respiratory disorders. Modern research, however, has focused on evening primrose oil (EPO) as a treatment for hormonal problems, schizophrenia and heart disease.,9837,712451,00.html



Executive Service Corps Affiliate Network (ESCAN): a nationwide network of thirty-three nonprofit consulting groups. ESC affiliates are dedicated to improving the quality of life in the communities they serve. They accomplish this mission by providing a variety of high quality, affordable services to nonprofits, schools, and government agencies. These services are performed by volunteer consultants who have had senior level positions in business, government, and nonprofits. These men and women are committed to helping strengthen the management of nonprofit agencies in order that they can more effectively address their missions.



Extacee: unique and effective supplement of high-quality, non-acidic vitamin C combined with spirulina, bioflavonols, and NanoClusters®.



extrafusal fibers: a class of muscle fiber innervated by alpha motor neurons. Contraction of these fibers generates mechanical work and allows for movement. Extrafusal muscle fibers and associated alpha motor neurons are called a motor unit. The connection between alpha motor neuron and extrafusal muscle fiber is a neuromuscular junction, and the neurotransmitter responsible for contraction is acetylcholine.